An excerpt of text from Virdainas © Jos. Pashka
Zambras en Zeimai.  žambras / žumbras > zumbrs > sumbrs

The Galindians, Sūdovians (Yotvingians), Pomesanians, and Old Prussians together formed a closely related Baltic language group known as the Western Balts,  to which one should also include the ancient Curonians. The Galindians (Γαλίνδαι) are associated with the Roman era Bogaczewo culture. The Western Balts were a polyethnic hybrid mix of Funnel Beaker, Globular Amphora, and Corded Ware Satem peoples on a Uralic Pit & Comb Ware & Neolithic Nemunas and Narva substratum population. The Corded Ware Satem newcomers themselves were also a mix of Sredny Stog Satems and originally non-IE late Tripolye polyethnic folk with a non-IE Dnieper-Donets substratum. The I.E. Satems, in turn, were descendants of various mixed Steppe and North Caucasian (R1) folk.

The early ancestors of the West Balts were the polyethnic West Baltic Barrow culture and the Mazovia-Podlasie groups of the Trzciniec culture along the Bug river basin, which bordered the autonomous Komarov ( Proto-Slavic ) culture of the Podolian Uplands further to the South. The Baltic Trzciniec ("Streaked" pottery) culture was related to the autonomous Komarov culture, but different, as ceramics, metalwork, hydronyms, and burial rites indicate. This difference can be seen in the word for man's best friend, "dog ", where West Baltic had sunis vs. Old Church Slavic pьsъ, or "rock" - Baltic akmō / ašmō vs. O.C. Slavic kamy, and also with many fundamental lexical and mythological disparities. In contrast, note East Baltic "šuo" dog, and Kalasha "šua" id. (re: Haplogroup U4 ). The West-Satem branch relatedness is illustrated by the word for "name" - West Baltic emens, Albanian emen, and Slavic imę, vs. more Central-Satem East Baltic Lithuanian vardas.

The West Baltic Barrow culture and Trzciniec evolved into the later Pomeranian culture horizon. The West Baltic dialect area flourished with their lively amber trade with the Unitice culture and beyond. Even as late as the Early Iron Age (600 BCE), the southern limit of the large Sūdovian culture territory bordered the Slavic / Scythian Chernoles culture. The neighboring Baltic Milograd culture was more similar to Eastern and Central Balts. For a map, see page 83 here.

The name Galind - is probably derived from the hydromym of Gielądzkie Jezioro in the province of Olsztyn, Poland, in what was the very center of ancient Galindia. J. Nalepa (1971 * ) suggested the root *gal- was originally a different ablaut grade of the same root found in Lith. "gilus" - deep, and "gelme" - depth. The original meaning referred to the depth of the lake mentioned, which is one of the deepest in the area.* Galindian territory corresponds somewhat to the modern day Masurian & Suwalki region of Poland.


Forensic Sci Int Genet. 2007 Jun;1(2):141-7. Epub 2007 Mar 7.

Complex interactions of the Eastern and Western Slavic populations
with other European groups as revealed by mitochondrial DNA analysis.

Grzybowski T, Malyarchuk BA, Derenko MV, Perkova MA, Bednarek J, Woźniak M.
The Nicolaus Copernicus University, Ludwik Rydygier Collegium Medicum, Department of Molecular and Forensic Genetics,
M. Curie-Skłodowskiej Str. 9, 85-094 Bydgoszcz, Poland.

" The results of genetic structure analyses suggest that Russians from Velikii Novgorod area (northwestern Russia)
and Poles from Suwalszczyzna (
northeastern Poland) differ from all remaining Polish and Russian samples."

( Mitochondrial DNA proves the Γαλίνδαι and Σουδινοί acculturated, and can be found in Suwalszczyzna. )


Although an Eastern Baltic tribe near Moscow named the Golyad' ( ГОЛЯДЬ ) had a ethnonym of similiar derivation, they were Eastern Balts, as surviving Y-DNA R1a1a- Z92 & the archeaological - historical records show. The Old Russian Ipatiy Compilation of Chronicles mentions that in 1147 the Prince of Rostov-Suzdal defeated the Golyad' ( ГОЛЯДЬ ) who lived by the River Porotva. The defeated population ( ГОЛЯДЬ ) was from then on taxed accordingly, although the ethnonym Golyad' persisted in the use by locals w/  Y-DNA R1a1a- Z92. They will be discussed at Proto Baltic .

The Neuri of Herodotus

According to Herodotus (approx 450 BCE) the Neuri ( Νέυροι )  were a tribe living North of the Tyres (Dneister river), and the furthest nation beyond the Scythian farmers, one of the nations along the course of the river Hypanis (Bug river). The Bug river meets the Naura (Baltic name for the Narew) river. The Naura river leads one to Galinda and Sūduva. Since trade increased recognition, the Neuri of Herodotus were probably related to the Galindians and Sūdovians. Herodotus also mentions the wild white horses nearby that grazed by a great lake, which scholars today suggest are the Podlesie marshes by the Bialowieza Forest. Yotvingian Tarpans from the Bialowieza Forest seasonally faded to near white in Winter. In 500 BCE, Eastern Europe climate was much cooler and wetter. There is still a town in Poland named Nur ( Νυρ) { 52° 40' 0" N, 22° 18' 0" E } along the upper Bug River, near the Bialowieza Forest. The Nurzec river runs nearby, and the local district currently bears the river's name.

Balts traditionally take ethnonyms from local hydronyms. The Baltic verbal roots *"nur-" to immerse or *"niur-" to get murky may be sources of the local hydronym. Archaeologists have excavated a fortified settlement and an open settlement near Moloczki Poland, by the Nurzec river. There are probably many more yet unexcavated in "Ziemia Nurska", as the area is known as. The Nurzec river was for a long time the Northern most border of the Przeworsk culture - which was a diverse multi-ethnic conglomeration of Lechitic Slavs, Goth/Vandals, and other descendants of Scythia. During it's "Cecele phase", the Wielbark culture bordered the West Baltic cultures, which facilitated prolonged inter-ethnic dialogue, trade, and exchange.  Udmurt "nur" swamp, might contradict this theory. The "Navari" of Pliny, perhaps near the Oka river by Kaluga, may be a better explanation, and offer a counter argument to the above.

The Balts of Ptolemy

Galinda and neighboring Sūduva were the only two Baltic tribal nations mentioned by the Greek geographer Ptolemy in the 2nd Century C.E.., as  Γαλίνδαι and Σουδινοί. Perhaps the spelling of Σουδινοί was possibly an uncorrected typo for the original and similar looking Σουδιυοί. ( re: 'Ιατυγγιωνες ). Romans coins ( Tiberius / Caligula ) unearthed in Galinda and Sūduva predate Ptolemy's account and indicate organized trade with Rome in the 1st Century C.E. Trade ventures with multi-ethnic  Wielbark culture Gothic speakers ( w/ I1a2 & I1 Z63, T2  ) provided unique loanwords from Gothic. Amber trade with Central Europe had been ongoing since antiquity, providing West Balts with more material goods, metals, and European cultural contacts than the East Balts. Highly valued Galindian produced jewelry was of exceptional beauty and craftsmanship, especially the enamel incrusted types. Galindian jewelry has been found from the Kiev area to the Urals.

The surname Galindo in Spanish is thought to date from the Gothic / Alani / Galindian settlement in Spain, like the surname Alanis / Alaniz. The Wielbark / West Balt border may have been more porous than previously thought. The Gutnish language on Gotland still preserves the triphthong "-iau-" as do Baltic languages.  It is of interest to note that an early differentiation of dialects also took place in the Eastern Baltic dialects, evolving early Lithuanian / Samogitian / Latvian, at a period when the neuter gender was still common in East Baltic ( Fatyanovo neuter "kela" - reel, spool )

The Western Balts

The Galindians and Sūdovians surface again in the historical record one millennium later, as inhabiting the same geographic location during the European Crusades against Baltic peoples. The Galindians and Sūdovians proved to be militarily formidable. The European Papal Crusades ended in failure when the Western European Crusaders were defeated at the Battle of Grunwald in 1410.

The Western Baltic dialect that gave rise to the
Galindian,  Sūdovian, and Old Prussian languages was one of
the dialects of the Peripheral Baltic Area. Thus, the Western Balts should include the Galindians, Sūdovians ( Яцьвягі ), Pomesanians, and the Prussians, and also the Curonians, the former comprising the Southern group, and the latter,  the Northern group. This explains the close linguistic similarity between Galindian,  Sūdovian ( Yotvingian ), and Old Prussian. A successful modern revival of Prussian is known as New Prussian. A link to their Prussian language website is provided below.

The Old Prussian Sembian dialect, though, exhibits a prolonged influence ( Pratorius' "corrupt" Prussian ) from the influx of nearby Curonians when compared to the more distant Pomesanian or Sudovian. The Sembian dialect of the Old Prussian Catechisms has "muti, tawas" (mother, father) whereas the Pomesanian of the Elbing Vocabulary has "mothe, towis". The chronicled Sudovian "Occopirmus" similarly differs from the Catechism Sembian "ucka-". Farther inland away from coast and Curonians, we do find Prussian "Tlokunpelk" - Bears' Marsh. Galindian did not historically border the Curonians, and was close to Sudovian in many respects.

The West Baltic Barrow & Trzciniec cultures were  later northern outcrops of the Corded Ware horizon. These Baltic cultures came from the Strednij Stog culture (4500-3350 BCE), which in turn leads back to the Khvalynsk and nearby Samara PIE epoch homeland culture (5500-5000 BCE) on the Volga River. The ancient Dual Horse motif found on top of Baltic peoples homes reflects the related Vedic Asvins. Similiar ( Ašvieniai ) symbolism was found in the Khvalynsk and Samara PIE cultures (5500 - 4700 BCE).


Eastern & Western Baltic

Some very archaic lexical differences exist between the Western Baltic ( R1a1a-, Z280, L366 ) dialects and the Eastern Baltic ( LWb allele, R1a1a-, Z280, Z92, L235 / N1c1 ) dialects. The word for "fire" is just such an example. The Western Balts used the word "panu", whereas the Eastern Balts used the word (Lith.) "ugnis".  Another example is the word for "wheel". The Western Balts used the word "kelan", whereas the Eastern Balts used the word (Lith.) "ratas".  These words have cognates in other ancient Indo-European languages. ( For the GAS relationship between Old Irish " roth ", Lithuanian " ratas " and Sanskrit " ratha "- see below ). That such archaic diversity of basic terminology existed within "Proto"-Baltic" illustrates the antiquity of the West / East Baltic vocabulary inherited from the late Sredny Stog horizon (3500-3350 BCE) into the "Europeanized IE " Corded Ware Middle Dnieper culture ( R1a1a- , Z280 ) horizon that influenced the evolution of divergent dialects by cultural contacts. Outliers of Centum Globular Amphora populations added poly-ethnic substratum cultural  influence ( Brjussow 1957; Ozols 1962; Česnys et al., 1990 ) to Fatyanovo, contributing a " residual " vocabulary of their central European Centum words like "pku " - livestock ( vs.Satem Lith. "pešti ", OCS "pьsъ " ). Non-IE East Baltic substratum ( Pit / Comb Ware N1c1 Uralic & Nemunas-Narva w/ U5 ) are probably responsible for the phonetic impetus behind Dative Plural "-m-" from "-b-", as well as the more recent loss of the neuter gender in East Baltic. Latvian has already lost neuter adjectives which Lithuanian still retains, yet Latvian accentuation indicates the neuter remained a distinct part of the language - even after the era when dialects became languages. The formative influence of poly-ethnic substratum populations on the various early Baltic-type dialects thus becomes easily apparent even for a layman to grasp.

Another key feature of West Baltic languages is the asigmatic nominative singular neuter gender ending in [ -n ]. This is noted in such words as kelan ( wheel ), azeran ( lake ), and dadan ( milk ). There are also many neuter gender words that end in [ -u ], such as panu ( fire ), peku ( livestock ), as well as alu ( mead ), of which the later two may well be from Centum Globular Amphora substratum and amber trade contacts. Note Old Prussian " panno " ( re: panu-staklan ), and Gothic "fōn ", Armenian "hur / hnoc' ". Old Prussian "druwis " / Iranian "dhruvi-" indicate the core Satem foundation of West Baltic. Aswinan & dadan certainly do. The neuter gender asigmatic "n"  exemplifies the archaic nature of the West vs. East divide in the Baltic languages. Lithuanian still has the neuter gender in some adjectives ending in -a, -ia, or -u, as well as in Neuter Participles. For example, "Šalta" - It is cold, "Čia jo būta" - He was here, or " Kokia  žalia  kanapė! " - What green hemp!. [ re: neuter "vaška" beeswax > Finnish "vaha" ]. The Lithuanian neuter is often used in impersonal constructions. There is not the slightest trace of the West Baltic neuter asigmatic "n" in East Baltic Fatyanovo loanwords or modern East Baltic ( Prussian "median" vs Samogitian "medė" forest ), once again dating a common West vs. East Baltic language relationship to a pre-Fatyanovo ( R1a1a- Z280, pre-GAS ) era. The East Baltic singular neuter seems to have had a parallel development as Lydian, and very interestingly, the present 3rd person forms of verbs in both languages are the same in the singular and plural. This isogloss could account for the Maykop burial orientation of Fatyanovo males to SW, females to NE, as well as a Maykop type metallurgic influence on Fatyanovo. [ re: > Finnish "metsä"- forest, Estonian "mets", Votic "meccä", Karelian "mečču" id, Lule Sámi "miehttjēn" far away, Sámi "meahcci " forest, fringe,  Hungarian ( ! ) "messze" far, distant / East Baltic " tilta " bridge - Fatyanovo neuter! > Finnish "silta" bridge, Estonian "sild ", Volgaic Erzya " śid́-al  ", "se͔d́ "  id  < ? Skt. " sētu-" band, bridge / Latvian  " sēta " fence" ].

Another feature of West Baltic is the Genitive singular declensional ending in [ -as ] for words that end in [ -as ] or [ -an ] in the Nominative case. This archaic feature is shared with the Hittite language ( < Maykop ? ). The declensional ending also changes the stress of the accent to the end syllable.  This generalized declensional feature is noted in a word like Nominative singular pedan ( ploughshare ), with Genitive singular pedas, or in the West Baltic Genitive singular Deivas' ( God's ). The above unique features of West Baltic are relics from dialect areas of the Proto-Indo-European Strednij Stog horizon ( 4500-3350 BCE ). Regarding variations in the frequencies of the Landsteiner-Wiener ( LW ) blood group, the frequency of the uncommon LWb gene in regions of West vs. East Balts also provides solid scientific proof of an ancient genetic distinction between the East & West Baltic language speakers. Theories of a "Proto-Balto-Slavic" split around 1,000 BCE ( eg. Kortlandt 1982: 181 ) naively contradict the immense volume of linguistic, archaelogical and emerging genetic evidence. Latvia has eleven C-14 dates of Corded Ware Culture, with the oldest around 3360 cal. BCE ( w/ 95.4% probability ). Time-travel technology has yet to be unearthed from the Latvian "boat-axe" archaeological sites. Such C-14 calibrated dating evidence only adds additional prestige to the archaic Slavic language branches.

A very unique feature preserved in the West Baltic languages is the Genitive singular declensional ending in [ -as' ] for words that end in [ -as ] or [ -an ] in the Nominative case. Hittite also shared this supra-archaic feature ( - < -os ), as well as perhaps neighboring Gothic (nom./ harjis ) nearby in the West. Neighboring multi-ethnic  Wielbark culture ( Gothic I1-M253, I1a2. & I1 Z63, T2 - Y-DNA ) interaction with West Baltic tribes, especially the Galindians, appears to have been co-operative and mutually beneficial. The border between the two may account for certain Gothic type loanwords into the Baltic languages. This Gen. [ -as' ] declensional ending is a proverbial monkey's wrench for expedited Balto-Slavic theories. Such a generalized declensional feature is noted in a word like Nominative singular pēdan (ploughshare), Genitive singular pēdas', or in the West Baltic Genitive singular Deivas' (God's), and in places names (re: Wilkaskaymen). The above unique features of West Baltic are relics from the Proto-Indo-European Sredny Stog horizon (4500-3350 BCE).

The core four cases of West-Baltic (Prussian, Sudovian, & Galindian) declension exhibit archaic features uniting West Baltic with Germanic and Greek. Only nominative, genitive, dative and accusative forms have constant intercrossing functions in various Indo-European languages, while forms used for the instrumental or locative cases (traditionally declared to be "Common Indo-European"), have related functions: e.g. the IE *"-ois" may occur in the instrumental case in one language and in the locative case in other ones, or *"-ō" / (apophonically) "-ē " occurs as "-āt" in the Indo-Iranian ablative and as "-it" in the Hittite instrumental. Such intercrossing elements were used for semi-paradigmatic adverbial forms, differently paradigmatized in the various Indo-European languages. (V. Toporov, V. J. Mažiulis)

Galindian had the same four nominal accent classes as does Lithuanian, but it had retained the original accentual state of Baltic ( an acute rising accent and a circumflex falling accent). The first class is the acute barytone paradigm. The second is the circumflex barytone paradigm. Thirdly, the acute mobile paradigm. Lastly, the circumflex mobile paradigm.

Words beginning with the labial vowels [o-] or [u-] had the West Baltic prothetic [v-]. Word initial  [v-] in some words was weakened. Example -  vōkapirmas "Creator". A parallel weakening is known in Sorbian. Some may say the  [v-] is "neutralized".  West Baltic "vōka-" had cognates with Gothic "ōkan", Tokharian "ok-", and more distantly, Karaim "oquš", and old Japanese "oku".

Reading from the archaeological record, one can associate dates of
3,200 - 2,300 BCE with various material artifacts (toy wheeled wagon) and increased plant ( hemp and wheat ) pollens that appear to indicate the arrival of "Baltic " speaking peoples in the Baltic region who appear gradually and slowly settled in well among native populations ( recently arrived Uralic Comb & Pitted Ware Cultures ( N1c1 ) mixed with an older Nemunas & Narva Substratum, & Centum Globular Amphora outliers ). Recent archaeological finds of Triticum and Cannabis pollen circa 5600 BCE from the Akali Neolithic settlement in East Estonia ( A. Poska, L. Saarse et al., 2006 ) places Cannabis cultivation in the Baltic region much further back into antiquity than even the Corded or Pitted Ware eras. Also, the East Balts ( LWb allele, R1a1a-, Z92 ) had more close contact with "Uralic" (e.g. Kiukainen culture ) and nearby Pit-grave "Yamna Āryan" speaking cultures than the West Balts ( Sanskrit "hastas " & Lith. "žastas " ). After 2,750 BCE, the agricultural record intensifies ( Rimantienė et al., 1999 ), as well as beginning East Baltic copper ( varis ) & bronze metallurgy near the Ural Mountains.

Migrations often follow climate changes ( the last quarter of the second millennium BCE & the 12th century BCE ) . Each migration would encounter different native ethnic groups, and influence the dominant language during assimilation of those ethnic natives. Indo-European peoples & languages have ALWAYS been multi-ethnic. The new "molecular DNA archaeology" proves it beyond question. We are all related - literally.

The LWb gene / BanI 2-Hin6I 1 haplotype

In respect to hematological variations in the frequencies of the Landsteiner-Wiener (LW) blood group, the frequency of the uncommon LWb allele was highest in the Central East Balts, around 7.5% among Lithuanian Samogitians, and very low among the other western Europeans ( 0-0.1% ). Click here for the PDF version of the LWb Study. The LWb blood allele can be seen as a genetic Tribal Marker of Prehistoric East Baltic Migrations and Admixture, and perhaps not a West-Baltic marker, since inhabitants of the Sūduva region average only a mere 2.7%, ... vs. 2.9% for Finns, 2.2% for distant northern Vologda Russians, or 4% for Estonians ! ( Sistonen et al., 1999 ) - even after over 600 years of continuous Lithuanian colonization and admixture in the Sūduva region. * For those who still think all Sudovians " vanished ", please reread the prior sentence - slowly.  Lithuanian R1a rates ( R1a1a Z92, L235, w/ LWb ) vary widely, with West Aukštaičiai 40.6% vs. South Aukštaičiai R1a at 61.8% ( Kasperavicuite et al., 2004 ). The absence of the 16304C-16311C mutations prevents unneeded misinterpretations. Genetic structure analyses also suggest Poles from Suwalszczyzna (northeastern Poland ) differ from all remaining Polish and Russian samples ( Grzybowski et al., 2007 ).  Another Baltic migration marker may be a significantly increased frequency of the BanI 2-Hin6I 1 haplotype.

After 2,750 BCE, the agricultural record intensifies. Migrations often follow climate changes. Each migration would encounter different native ethnic groups, and influence the dominant language during assimilation of those ethnic natives. Europe today is like an unmarked ancient sack of mixed genetic seeds. Indo-European languages have ALWAYS been multi-ethnic. Proto Indo-European was born multi-ethnic.

Baltic & Slavic

The late Sredny Stog Middle Dnieper Culture grew from conservative peripheral IE dialects related to Yamna Satem, with admixture of different assimilated indigenous peoples from Dnieper Donets and the Tripolye culture of Central Europe, as well as subgroups of Centum Globular Amphora contributors ( w/ TRB, BBC), and a host of others (re: remnant Middle Dnieper Repins ). The ethnogenesis of these distinct dialects with assimilated indigenous peoples formed various diverse regional "Balto-Slavic" speakers, which were  localized as the poly-ethnic "Europeanized " peripheral Satem dialects of Baltic and Slavic closely related to early Pit-grave Āryan, yet distinctly different even then, with diverse degrees of admixture within regional subgroups. The Balto-Slavic type poly-ethnic Middle Dnieper culture was a fusion of ethnic groups - a melting pot - so to speak, with a "retro" core Satem dialect (archaic Balto-Slavic lacks perfect reduplication - agreeing with Albanian. Hamp 1963).  The unique peripheral components of the Middle Dnieper culture, say the early East Baltic Fatyanovo, migrated away before a homogenization of that Middle Dnieper Satem lingua franca could consolidate. ( E. Baltic kur, kame, W. Baltic kuei, Slavic kъde - RUKI - Baltic long root preterite, re: Burrow 1955, p 19 ).

The Y-STR variation among Slavs* has given the evidence for the Slavic homeland near the middle Dnieper basin, which provides a geographic context for the Slavic linguistic correlation to the early Satem West & East Baltic Upper Middle Dnieper homeland, and the nearby Catacomb / & Pit-grave Āryans to the East. During the period (3,400 BCE) of the oxen pulled wheeled wagon revolution, the Yamnaya culture slowly expanded toward the edge of the Corded Ware horizon of late Sredny Stog culture. Millennia later, in the same eastern area of the contact zone, near the middle Dnieper, a poly-ethnic Slav / Timber Grave Iranian ethno-genesis would develop the Chernoles culture.

A separation of Belarus subpopulations along a North / South line can be demonstrated particularly in distribution of Y chromosomal lineages R1b, I1a and I1b, N3 and G-chromosomes. The uniqueness of the northern Belarusian population is most likely due to the high incidence of Яцьвягі Y chromosomes from the haplogroup N1c1 [ old name N3 ] (homogeneous Baltic Яцьвягі substrate with allele DYS19*15 ), which is twice the frequency as in central and southern Belarus. The central and southern Belarusian substratum Baltic Milograd physical traits differ somewhat from Ukrainian substratum Slav/Scytho-Sarmatian traits (re: U3). The assimilation of Belarus may have been mainly linguistic and less physically ethnical.

The Autonomous Proto-Slav Komarov Culture

The autonomous Proto-Slav Komarov culture complex of the Podolian Upland bordered the Trzciniec and Sosnitsa (early peripheral Baltic) complexes to it's far North, but appears culturally related to the Montreoru (early Dacian) and later Sabatinovka "Thracian" complex to it's near South in regard to burial rites and pottery. (also see Linguistics and Ethnogenesis of the Slavs; 1985, by Oleg N. Trubačev). Native Pre-I.E Tripolye culture farming populace ("Temematian") were assimilated also, as they were to a somewhat lesser extent with Middle Dnieper Baltic. The unique close relation of early Slavic origins to Ural-Steppe & Asian Iranian ( Slavic azъ / Tumshuq Sakan azu ), and nearby Dacian and Thracian, are often lost to the worn out Balto-Slavic chorus of cliches. After the arrival of the Huns (w/ G, V, mtDNA N1a, U4) in Europe, and a devastating plague in the 6th-7th century A.D., post multi-ethnic Cherniakhov culture Slavic soon became the lingua franca of commerce / trade throughout most of Central Europe and beyond.

A polyethnic ethnogenesis interpretation (Proto-Slav Komarov > Belogrudovka > Chernoles culture) helps to explain why Slavic has partial elements of a Satem Corded Ware dialect of an early autonomous Proto-Slav Komarov culture language, resembling Baltic (Middle Dnieper culture) languages bordering to the North. The archaeology also agrees with regional hydronyms of a decidely Slavic provenance (vs. Trzciniec & Sosnitsa Baltic) as proposed by the renowned Russian philologist Oleg N. Trubačev. Trubačev (1986) had also detected nearby Illyrian and Thracian hydronyms on the  Dniester, Bug, and Middle Dnieper. A poly-ethnic ethnogenesis interpretation also explains some of the Slav / Timber Grave Iranian religious vocabulary as well ( re: Pashto "Perūney", Slavic "Perun" vs.Thracian " περκων " ) as other linguistic impacts on Slavic ( see Eric.Hamp 2011 ) from the Timber Grave & Steppe Iranian culture ( Slavic azъ / Saka azu ), and also detection of common Slav / Timber Grave Iranian mtDNA types ( B. Malyarchuk et al., 2006 ).

The southern neighbors of the Proto-Slavic Belogrudovka (from earlier Komarov ) culture ( mtDNA U4a2 ) were the Sabatinovka "Thracian" complex - a mix of Catacomb, Timber Grave & Monteoru ( Sharafutdinova 1986: 115 ), which yielded to the Belozerka > Chernogorovka "Cimmerian" early Timber Grave Iranian speakers, which in turn yielded to steppe Timber Grave Scythians. The Timber Grave culture retreated South from the Ural forest steppe around the 12th century BCE due to climatic cooling. Also, the later Sarmatian & Alan presence near the Dnieper by Kiev was enormous (re: mtDNA U3, R1a- Z93 / Slavic azъ / Saka azu / Ossetian æz, & loss of word-final *-s  ). Ukrainian cattle mtDNA reflects this influx from the steppes of the East.

In the Ukrainian gene pool, six Y-DNA haplogroups are revealed: E, F (21.3% / including G and I), J, N1c1 (9.6%), P, and R1a1. Northeast European "Sarmatians" ( C. Keyser et al., 2009 ) are not merely romantics, as Saka kurgan (mtDNa N1a1a1) genetics bear out ( C. Keyser et al., 2009, Voevoda et al., 2000; Clisson et al., 2002, Ricaut, Francois-X et al., 2004) - although historical Sarmatians (" Śarmis ") included Asian R1a- Z93 & Uralic admixture (N3 / U4). Note Udmurt "andan" & Ossetian "ændan"-steel. The tripartite division of the Slavic languages may reflect latent regional substratum influence on dialects evolved from the Proto-Slav Komarov culture, which was designated by hydronyms of a Slavic provenance by O. N. Trubačev. East Slavic, like it's neighboring East Baltic Sosnitsa  ( > Bondarikha > Jukhnovo ) complex to the North, had the near influence of the Catacomb culture, and may reflect some MVK Catacomb ( Mnogovalikovo ) cultural dialogue ( Russian "jalovec" juniper, Armenian "elevin" id. ). West Slavic R1a M458 may well be inherited from ( post Lengyel -TRB ) Corded Ware / Centum Globular Amphora culture area substratum ( re: GAS > Czech " pyr " fire embers ), with a Satem conversion preceding a later W. Slavic expansion ( Slavic "Bogъ", Saka "Baga-",  Slavic "azъ", Saka "azu " - see Eric.Hamp 2011  ). Language is not genetic, it is acquired. Note N1c1 ( N-M178 ) Baltic speakers in Lithuania & Latvia, or R1a1a ( Z92, LWb ) Uralic speakers in Estonia.

Kelan / Kolo / Ratas

Does this support the construct of a so-called "Balto-Slavic" region or Middle Dnieper cultural horzon of anciently related initial dialects of subgroups like a Satem "Armeno-Aryan", Centum "Celto-Italic", or much earlier  "Indo-Uralic "? Probably. The distance between Slavic & Baltic each to early Satem Indo-Iranian (Pit-grave Āryan Satem) is not as great as such labels would imply. One can also easily group together Satem "Baltic-Slavic-Indo-Iranian" with "RUKI" & declension ( loc.Pl. ending *-su ) considerations. They were all in obviously close contact by horseback or river travel. But if there never was a monolithic "Proto-Baltic" per se, how can you ever have a monolithic Proto "Balto-Slavic" amid the chaotic multiculturalism of the Middle Dnieper horizon? Early Corded Ware East Baltic Fatyanovo sites in Estonia date to 3,000 B.C.E. The different Balts are even physically distinct around that time. 

The Baltic and Slavic subgroups were already well differentiated and autonomous (e.g. separate mythologies & RUKI, Baltic long root preterite, archaic divergent vocabularies ) yet close to one another  with the adoption of the wheel "kelan / kolo / ratas" (3,200 BCE). Zaza "ləzga", Ossetian " лæдзæг "branch, Russian dialect " ляэга ", vs. Lith " laz-da " (Albanian ledhi - id ). Note Slavic "a" - and, but, - reflects an ablative form of a pronoun (Avestan " āt "- then, and).  Archaeologists have not found the archetypal "Balto-Slavic" settlements per se, probably because each branch group were formed and influenced in different NE. / W. / S. regions (re: ratas / kelan / kolo) of the Middle Dnieper culture by a diverse admixture of various peoples and influences, albeit somewhat near each other, as was a Proto-Thracian variant. Of course they are related. Balto-Slavic is a generic generalization of a brief "Europeanized " Satem linguistic horizon, like "Armeno-Aryan" (remodeled ablative suffix, etc) - but initially more polyethnic. The idealized unified "Proto-Balto-Slavic" Satem dialect probably pertains to an earlier pre-Middle Dnieper Culture peripheral area somewhere bordering Pit-Grave groups, and in contact with northern Repin dialects for awhile. But Baltic, like Slavic, are in fact, products of multiculturalism throughout their linguistic evolutions.

Proto-Slavic and the more northern early Baltics were partially composed of assimilated Dnieper-Donets and acculturated later Tripolye peoples emulating the Yamna-like I.E. Satem speakers of peripheral related Sredny Stog dialects, among a multi-ethnic converging cultural vortex of others ( Dnieper Repins, TRB, Globular Amphora & CWC poly-ethnics ), and with more admixture later where they would settle. The eventual influence of Timber Grave Belozerka "Cimmerian" and later steppe Scythian & Sarmatian on Slavic ( B. Malyarchuk et al., 2006 ) was significant ( loss of word-final *-s ). With the mobility of wheels, changes were occuring rapidly - isolation was fading fast. The Slavic nominative neuter appears to resemble East Baltic more than West Baltic, although Slavic agrees with West Baltic more in other respects.

Like Wild West movies, debates on Balto-Slavic have had a duration longer than the original horizon probably lasted! The close affinity of Satem Slavic & Baltic to Yamna related Indo-Iranian can be no surprise, nor their distinctive 'European" poly-ethnic accents. The fiction of ethnic or racial "purity & superiority" is clinical insanity. It seems the growing early pre-IIr. Yamna and Eastern Baltic dialect areas moved Northward as did the early West Balts, as the Thracians, Dacians, Pre-Albanians, and Slavs, who migrated southwestward, assimilating various Central European non-IE native and early Centum-TRB mixed IE people ( R1a, M458 ) into their cultures ( Dacian place name " Clevora ", Lith " Klevas " maple, Lith. place-names "Liepora, Beržorai " w/ distributive -or- suffix ).  Thereafter, the original Slavic future tense (which was perhaps similar to Baltic & Indo-Iranian) was lost while assimilating Dniester Tripolye C2 populace and other groups - as did the neighboring Germanics, who had replaced the future tense as well. It now appears that Winter's Law also applies to Albanian, which draws the probability of including Thracian into serious academic consideration.

The early Proto-Slavic dialect reflects an inter-ethnic "dialogue" ( RUKI of Slavic / Mid-Iranian ) of early Timber Grave Iranian (Belozerka - Chernogorovka Cimmerian & later steppe Scythian) assimilation, which occurred upon an earlier polyethnic Balto-Slavic dialects accent region ( due to assimilated non-IE substratum admixture). Slavic loss of word-final *-s may have had a "visarga" stage ( *-s > *-h > * ) resembling, and most probably influenced by early Timber Grave Iranian contact (Belozerka - Chernogorovka Cimmerian & steppe Scythian). Culturally, the influence of the Timber Grave immigration ( Slavic "Bogъ", Saka "Baga-", Vedic "Bhagas" ) was not as imposing on the rustic nearby Dnieper-Desna Baltic steppe-forest dwellers. An earlier hypothetical "Balto-Slavic" dialects "Dnieper Basin Accent" (DBA) of the polyethnic Middle Dnieper Culture ( R1a-, Z280 ) area would be at least later-Sredny-Stog era, followed by a gradual Pre-Proto-Slavic westward steppe ( plateau vs. the forest ) trajectory, evolving into the Proto-Slavic Komarov > Belogrudovka culture.

Maps indicating the location of the ("Temematian") non-IE Tripolye (Cucuteni-Trypillian) Culture of Dniester farmers compared with maps of the Proto-Slavic language region (based on hydronyms) parallel each other closely, although there is at least two thousand years between each horizon. Herodotus later describes "Scythian farmers" where once were only European Tripolye culture farmers. On either side of the early Slavics were lively trade partners of early Germanics to the Northeast , and early Baltics to the Northwest - both of which were also polyethnic to various degrees with native European peoples. If the Corded Ware "Europeanized " isogloss of Dative Plural - "-M- " occurred as an areal innovation due to Uralic substratum phonetic influence, it probably started with contact and assimilation with Globular Amphora peoples now of mixed affinities ( Narva,  Lengyel, TRB  & Centum Globular Amphora R1a- M458 ), and spread at a very early formative stage of E+W Baltic development and later to pre-proto-Germanic / pre-Slavic. The Sanskrit alphabet long ago anticipated the natural progression of B to M, which enabled a fast transition. Assimilation often accompanies innovation. It is interesting that both poly-ethnic ( Dniester Tripolye C2, TRB, GAS ) neighboring Centum pre-Germanics and Satem pre-Slavics replaced the original future tense construct of "-s-"  (re: relics - Slavic "byšęšteje", Czech "probyšucny "), as opposed to the Italo-Celtics as well as the distant eastern Baltics, who shared borders and the original future tense with "-s" with the early Satem Āryan Yamna cultures. A example of Baltic "s" future may be seen in Lith duos < * dōH3s < * doH3s ( Lith dial. dōs ). The mtDNA reflects such a scenario, but whether it happened like this is anybody's guess.

The influence of Dnieper Donets or the Tripolye substratum in the DBA, or RUKI, has not been given the attention it deserves. The assimilation of regional Baltic speakers also influenced various Slavic languages, such as the Milograd (E. Slavic jas'en' vs. jesen - ash tree), Kolochin, and Yotvingian cultures in Belarusian, the large-scale East ( & West ! ) Baltic substratum in the Old Novgorodian territory, North Russian ( LWb allele, R1a- Z92+ & N1c1 ) tl / dl consonant clusters > kl / gl - like East Baltic, the Pomeranian presence in West Slavic, Dnieper-Dvina East Balt foundation of the Tušemlja culture (which later included immigrant Sudovians and Slavs in the Long Barrow culture), and the widely scattered East Baltic speaking tribes in Western & Northern Russia ( re: LWb allele at 2.2% for Vologda Russians ) . Also noted is the area where Belarusian, Russian, & Polish prepose their genitives. In contrast, specific lineage characterized by 16304C-16311C mutations, which indicate the Slavonic migrations from Central to E. Europe, was not found among Lithuanians.

There never was a monolithic "Proto-Baltic" per se. Note the Eastern Baltic LWb gene areas, or the R1a1a- Z280 variations. The various West / East Baltic, Thracian, & Slavic languages (along with the Indo-Iranian branch) represent an archaic continuum of remnant subgroups of former core Satem I.E. dialects, the last Proto Indo-European branches to finally split. The "Proto-Baltics" would be none other than some "Proto Satem Indo-European" dialects together with the closely neighboring Satem Proto-Thracian & Dacian, Proto-Slavic, and Proto-Indo-Iranian. It may be more helpful to visualize East Baltic, Slavic & Indo-Iranian as part of the still growing main Satem trunk, rather than as language branches.

For an example of the archaic nature of the Baltic / Slavic relationship, click here.


Señor Galindo

And why did the Galindians "vanish"? They didn't. Genetic surveys of the region show it. Genetic tests of people from nearby Kętrzyn (Rastembork) Poland showed unexpectedly higher Baltic genetic admixture from native Balts than anyone anticipated. The Kurpie region of Poland is an outstanding cultural example. 

The myth of Terra Nullius ( deserted wasteland ) was merely historic ethnocidal  propaganda,
justifying centuries of Papal Conquests, Atrocities & Theft in both the Old, and the New World.
It was a Lie.
The DNA proves it is only ethnic cleansing fiction, and nothing more.

Nobody magically "vanishes", ... not even in Las Vegas.


The Galindian greeting "Kailas" re-affirms that we are all One,
with each other, and with the Earth we share.


Gielądzkie Jezioro is located at ( 53° 52' N  21° 10' E )
in what is now Poland.

With the now irreversible Polar Ice Melt and the demise of  Glaciers and Coral Reefs worldwide,
please try to keep the above in perspective.

Remember that another language is going extinct
every other week
on our planet.



Click on Photo for Baltic Log Home Architecture
click here for Baltic Log Home Architecture

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~ in memory of Jagannath, Professor of Sanskrit, University of Arizona ~

* Nalepa, Jerzy, 'Próba nowej etymologii nazwy Galindia czyli Golędź.',
Opuscula. Slavica 1, [=Slaviska och baltiska studier 9]: 93-115. Lund 1971
Även publicerad i: Acta-Baltico Slavica 9: 191-209. Wrocław 1976.

# The LWb blood group as a marker of prehistoric Baltic migrations and admixture.,
Sistonen P, Virtaranta-Knowles K, Denisova R, Kucinskas V, Ambrasiene D, Beckman L.,
Hum Hered. 1999 Jun;49 (3):154-8

Gintaras reflects  the Sembian dialect pronunciation with their typical narrowing of  " en " to " in ",
adopted as such in some neighboring East Baltic dialects. ie: swints vs. šventas.
Modern Lithuanian " gintaras " amber, vs. dialect variant " gentaras " id.

Perhaps an early Satem East Baltic "* tūśante / tūšanti ", or  " * tūškanti " huge > thousand, reflects an East Baltic ( Latvian " tūkst, sing. pret. tūska " ) based participle ( Estonian "tuhante" )
or maybe a present stem * tūša with an Indo-European " -nt- " collective suffix.
The Globular Amphora culture evidently adopted it, like the 11, 12 " leftover "forms, and dative plural -m- ipo -b-, as did others later.

* The hemp tradition of Eurasian Steppe Saka is reflect in; Old English "hænep", Old Irish "cnaip", Slovak "konope",
West Baltic "knapios", Armenian "kanap' ", Albanian Geg "kanëp", Latvian kaņepe, Lithuanian "kanapė", Turkmen "kenäp".

* Erzya-Moksha Mordvin loanwords include - " vərgas ", ( Indo-Iran. vrkah ) " pejel " - knife ( Lith. peilis / peile ), " kardaz " ( Lith. gardas > Common Permian " * kar " fortified place ).
and " uske, viska " - metal ( ? Tokharian A. was, B, yasa, Armenian uoski, Sanskrit ucchati ). Finnic Mari has " waž " for metal ore. Forest Nenets has a " wyesya " cognate.
Also Finnish " kekri " annual Native festival < * kekra-j < * kekra- > Sanskrit " chakra ", Finnic " vihi " ( Lith. vėžė )

* Baltic " Deivas " Great Sky Spirit, influenced Finnish " taivas " heaven, perhaps Saami " taiw ", and also Hungarian " táj " - Khanty " tai ".
The often ignored semantics of East Baltic celestial " Deivas " are illustrated in phrases from Latvian dainās ( eg. " Saule noiet dievā " - Nav saulīte dievā gaiša ).

* The songs of the Erzya Mordvin thunder god " Pur’ginepaz " parallel both Lith. " Perkūnas " and Vedic " Parjanya " ( पर्जन्य ) closely.