Grammatical Appendix

Butan
Updated & Restored
Sūdovian / Yotvingian Declension

 

Sūdovian has three genders; Masculine, Feminine, and Neuter.

"man, husband" -Masc. gender

Singular Plural
Nominative vīras vīrai
Genitive vīras' + vīrun
Dative vīru vīrams
Accusative vīran vīrans
Locative vīrai * vīraisu **
Vocative vīre! vīrai!

+ The Genitive written end apostrophe indicates amplitude ,or emphasis, of last syllable.

The Genitive thereby does not shorten like the Nominative does in rapid speech.
( this Genitive, if not a I.E. relic, reflects centuries of very close Goth-Sudovian cultural interaction - or both. )

*
The Locative sometimes uses a preposition , as in the phrase "en stasmai vīrai".
Its' duplicate Dative form will be marked with an (
* ) below to save space.
Dative "
vīru" <  vīrō.     * * The archaic Locative plural poly-ethnic forms with -su are rarely used.

Same declension for vundas (water) and mēnas (month).

 

"woman, wife" -Fem. gender

Singular Plural
Nominative gena genos
Genitive genos genun
Dative genai * genoms
Accusative genan genans
Vocative gena! genos!

Same declension for lauksna (star), - plural  lauksnos (stars).

 

"lake" -Neuter gender

Singular Plural
Nominative azeran azero, azerai +
Genitive azeras' + azerun
Dative azeru azerams
Accusative azeran azera
Locative azerai azeraisu **

+ The Genitive written end apostrophe indicates amplitude ,or emphasis stress of last syllable.
 Thus, the Genitive does not shorten in rapid speech.

Note - Either Nom. Plural, both the older or recent (+) poly-ethnic loaned form, are acceptable.
Same declension for butan (house), and kelan (wheel)

 

"brother" -Masc. gender

Singular Plural
Nominative brote broteres
Genitive brotres brotun
Dative brotrei * brotrems
Accusative broten brotens
Vocative broter! broters!

Same declension for daive (husband's brother).

 

"earth"-Fem. gender

Singular Plural
Nominative zeme zemes
Genitive zemes zemiun
Dative zemei * zemems
Accusative zemien zemens
Vocative zeme! zemes!

Same declension for kurpe (shoe ), and kame (sheep ).

 

"guest"-Masc. gender

Singular Plural
Nominative gastis gastes
Genitive gastes gastiun
Dative gastei * gastims
Accusative gastin gastins
Vocative gasti! gastes!

Same declension for pentis (heel ).

 

"livestock" -Neuter gender

Singular Plural
Nominative peku pekus
Genitive pekus pekun
Dative peku * pekums
Accusative peku pekus
Vocative peku pekus

Same declension for alu (mead) and panu (fire).

 

"son" -Masc.gender

Singular Plural
Nominative sūnus sūnaus
Genitive sūnaus sūnun
Dative sūnau * sūnums
Accusative sūnun sūnuns
Vocative sūnau! sūnaus!

Same declension for dangus (sky, heaven)

 

"all" -Neuter gender adjective

Singular Plural
Nominative visa visai
Genitive visesa visun
Dative visasma visams
Accusative visan visans

 

 

"deep" -Masc. gender adjective

Singular Plural
Nominative gilus gilūs
Genitive gilaus gilun
Dative gilusma gilums
Accusative gilun giluns

 

"deep" -Fem. gender adjective

Singular Plural
Nominative gilī giles
Genitive giles giliun
Dative gilei gilims
Accusative gilin gilins

 

Pronouns

"this, the"

Singular

Masc. Neut. Fem.
Nominative stas sta(n) sta
Genitive stasa stesa* stasos
Dative stasma stasma stasai
Accusative stan sta(n) stan

The Neuter singular has two poly-ethnic variants ( w/ or w/o [-n] ).
Note the Neuter Genitive *
-esa alternate to Masc. -asa

 

"I", "we" - genderless

Singular Plural
Nominative as mes
Genitive mene * nūsun
Dative menei (mi) nūms
Accusative men (mi) mans

* Also possessive Genitive " majasa ", & relic Instrumental " majim " - with me.

 

"thou, you" - genderless

Singular Plural
Nominative jūs
Genitive tebe * jūsun
Dative tebei (ti) jūms
Accusative ten (ti) vans

* Also possessive Genitive " tvajasa ", & relic Instrumental " tvajim " - with thee. .

 

"he", "they" - Masc. gender

Singular Plural
Nominative tanas tanai
Genitive tanasa tanaisun
Dative tanasma tanams
Accusative tanan tanans

 

"she", "they" -Fem. gender

Singular Plural
Nominative tana tanos
Genitive tanasos tanaisun
Dative tanai tanoms
Accusative tanan tanans

 

"our' " - Masc. possessive pronoun

Singular Plural
Nominative nūsas nūsai
Genitive nūsasa nūsaisun
Dative nūsasma nūsams
Accusative nūsan nūsans


 

* The foreign rendering of spoken pronounciation is noted
with " kayles ", vs. "kailas ", where unaccented "a" is rendered as "e".

* The old Baltic Dual Pronouns are, like in Latvian, no longer productive,
although " ve- ", and " jū- ", were once used.

Sūdovians and Wielbark Goths had centuries of close cultural & personal interaction.
Not only does the archaeology reflect this ( like the Tiberius Roman coin from Pajevonys ),
but so does the West Baltic vocabulary & declension - not to mention the ancient
Wielbark culture.Mtdna H5a1 ( not uncommon among Balts ).

 

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Trakai Castle - birthplace of Vytautas the Great

 

Virdainas - U.S.A. Copyright 1994 - All Rights Reserved
A Restored Lexicon of our Sūdovian & Yatving Indigenous Language
For Use By Sūdovians & Yatvings